The Tutor As:


  • entertainer: acts as a propagandist for architectural culture through telling stories and making references to their own experiences and historical examples, however, makes little attempt to interact with the students either to ensure understanding or connect with the students’ own ideas
  • hegemonic overlords: act in a way that ensures student conformity with their particular ideological position by correcting the students’ work and directing future work, often by drawing the students’ project for them. (they are the most prevailing kind)
  • liminal servant: according to Mc Laren this is the only type:  of tutor that increases the learners’ impetus that will support resourceful learning. By enthusiastically engaging with every student ideas, they make them also enthusiastic about their own learning. Their characteristics are: enthusiasm, openness, two-way communication, mutuality, empathy and counselling, co-management



Khorshidifard, S., 2011, ‘A paradigm in architectural education: Kolb’s Model and learning styles in studio pedagogy’, in The 2011 ARCC Architectural Research Conference papers hosted by the Lawrence Technological University April 20-23, 2011, available here

McLaren, P., 1999, Schooling as a Ritualised Performance, New York: Roman and Littlefield.

Webster, H., 2004, ‘Facilitating critically reflective learning: excavating the role of the design tutor in architectural education’, in Art, Design & Communication in Higher Education 2 (3) pp. 101–111, DOI:

Book and Image available here

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