Notes from Vincent Tinto’s Inside Higher Ed article: “From Retention to Persistence”
Self-Efficacy: a person’s belief in their ability to succeed at a particular task or in a specific situation, many students begin college confident in their ability to succeed, more than a few do not, in particular those whose past experiences lead them to question their ability to succeed in college as well as those who experience stereotype threats that label them as less likely to succeed, those confident in their ability to succeed can encounter challenges that serve to weaken their sense of self-efficacy
Sense of Belonging: students have to come to see themselves as a member of a community of other students, faculty and staff who value their membership — that they matter and belong, as a commitment that serves to bind the individual to the group or community even when challenges arise, all students must be able to see the institution as welcoming and supportive -that the culture is one of inclusion. [In the academic realm, that can take the form of cohort programs and learning communities. Within classrooms, it can mean using pedagogies like cooperative and problem-based learning that require students to learn together as equal partners. In the social realm, institutions can take steps to provide for a diversity of social groups and organizations that allow all students to find at least one smaller community of students with whom they share a common bond]
Perceived Value of the Curriculum: students need to perceive the material to be learned is of sufficient quality and relevance to warrant their time and effort, knowledge should be contextualized with student profiles, contemporary realities and pedagogies.
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