- Cuff, 1991/Nicol-Pilling, 2000: rich social dynamic and socialized learning in a learning setting form a central plank of the studio-based pedagogy for arch design. Although studio learning has historically utilized the cohort, peer interaction has further potential to alleviate the detrimental effects of power that can manifest themselves in tutor-student relationships.
- Parnell, 2001: The social dimensions of the studio and the opportunity for collaboration and sharing act as stimulants to learning
- Fisher, 1991: fraternity culture, it is the culture of the studio that acquires lasting significance for students
- Costa-Kallick, 1991: critical friend_it enables a form of peer to peer dialogue that directly parallels the kinds of conversation that occur between students in the learning process
- Dutton, 1991: peer to peer relationships are relatively free from the symptoms of power asymmetries
- Schaffer, 2003: learning takes place through the internalization of social processes of evaluation and that the norms of the community become a framework for individual thinking and individual identity
- Boud, 2001: peer learning promotes other facets of learning such as team working, the management of personal learning and judgment and the ability to critique both self and others
- Anthony, 1991: informal dialogue and formalized learning offers the students the possibility to obtain multiple perspectives and opportunity for continuous discourse. The nature of the studio means that students are exposed to numerous, frequently conflicting perspectives which can present challenges, especially during the early stages of study.
- Klebesadel-Kornetsky, 2009: critique, as a mode of offering structured and unstructured feedback is a mode that is shared by all the creative arts
- Bruffee, 1999: constructive conversation as a means to harness peer interaction, socialization and critical dialogue
- Piaget, 1985: co-operation as central to the development of reflection, discourse and critical abilities
- Vygotsky, 1986: zone of proximal development term that described how social interaction constitutes a necessary component for full cognitive development to be achieved
- Flavell, 1985-Stahl, 1992: cognitive and meta-cognitive processes of knowledge construction contradict the common assumption that knowledge is effectively conveyed from tutor to student in feedback processes. Student learning was found to be conditioned by the individuals’ existing knowledge and understanding, against which new information is aligned creating either a deepening of knowledge or leading to previous knowledge being revised.
- Askew, 2000: power has a profound relationship to feedback, whether formative or summative
- Nicol & Macfarlane-Dick, 2006: peer interaction occurs where student progress generates dialogue and criticism
- Mezirow, 1997: there are instances when students actively seek the authority of the tutor and points where power can be constructively channelled to challenge and stretch students through shifting their frames of reference in ways that peer dialogue is unlikely to achieve
- Rowntree, 1977: feedback is fundamental to effective learning
David McClean & Neasa Hourigan, 2013. Critical Dialogue in Architecture Studio: Peer
Interaction and Feedback. In Journal for Education in the Built Environment, 8:1, 35-57
Image of Macquarie University Social Learning Space / Bennett and Trimble is available here