Gagne’s 9 events of instruction


  • Gain the attention of the students: Stimulate students with novelty, uncertainty and surprise/ Pose thought-provoking questions to the students/ Have students pose questions to be answered by other students
  • Inform students of the objectives: Describe required performance/ Describe criteria for standard performance/ Learner establishes criteria for standard performance
  • Stimulate recall of prior learning: Ask questions about previous experiences/ Ask students about their understanding of previous concepts
  • Present the content: Present vocabulary/ Provide examples/ Present multiple versions of the same content, e.g., video, demonstration, lecture, podcast, group work/ Use a variety of media to address different learning preferences
  • Provide learning guidanceProvide instructional support as needed – as scaffolds (cues, hints, prompts) which can be removed after the student learns the task or content/ Model varied learning strategies – mnemonics, concept mapping, role playing, visualising/ Use examples and non-examples – in addition to providing examples, use non-examples to help students see what not to do or the opposite of examples/ Provide case studies, analogies, visual images and metaphors – case studies for real world application, analogies for knowledge construction, visual images to make visual associations, metaphors to support learning
  • Elicit performance: Elicit student activities – ask deep-learning questions, make reference to what students already know or have students collaborate with their peers/ Elicit recall strategies – ask students to recite, revisit, or reiterate information they have learned/ Facilitate student elaborations – ask students to elaborate or explain details and provide more complexity to their responses/ Help students integrate new knowledge – provide content in a context-rich way (use real-world examples)
  • Provide feedback:
    • Confirmatory feedback – Informs the student they did what he or she were supposed to do
    • Corrective and remedial feedback – informs the student the accuracy of their performance or response
    • Remedial feedback – Directs students in the right direction to find the correct answer but does not provide the correct answer
    • Informative feedback – Provides information (new, different, additions, suggestions) to a student and confirms that you have been actively listening – this information allows sharing between two people
    • Analytical feedback – Provides the student with suggestions, recommendations, and information for them to correct their performance
  • Assess performance: Pretest for mastery of prerequisites/ Use a pretest for endpoint knowledge or skills/ Conduct a post-test to check for mastery of content or skills/ Embed questions throughout instruction through oral questioning and/or quizzes/ Include objective or criterion-referenced performances which measure how well a student has learned a topic/ Identify normative-referenced performances which compares one student to another student
  • Enhance retention and transfer to the jobParaphrase content/Use metaphors/ Generating examples/ Create concept maps or outlines/ Create job-aids, references, templates, or wizards



Full text available here/ Image available here

One thought on “Gagne’s 9 events of instruction

  1. Pingback: Gagne’s conditions of learning | connecting data to information to knowldge

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