xAPI: The Experience API (or xAPI) is a new specification for learning technology that makes it possible to collect data about the wide range of experiences a person has (online and offline). This API captures data in a consistent format about a person or group’s activities from many technologies. Very different systems are able to securely communicate by capturing and sharing this stream of activities using xAPI’s simple vocabular
Learning Record Store
There are three things that it does as a server site abstraction for xAPI: it provides validation for any of the data that is attempting to go into that store/ it has strict and stringent standards/ it’s not just a Dropbox repository/ if the data doesn’t meet those standards it is rejected. So, LRS:
- provides the means to validate the confidence that one can have of that data into the learning ecosystem/ it is a great open source measure to know we are dealing with valid data
- stores that data in an immutable format/ we are tracking activity over time and that time of activity is stored in immutable chronology/ at any point in time we can go back and recreate that activity
- stores all the data on a machine readable format/ that allows other data consumers to use that data in machine driven ways defined by functions to produce all kinds of automated things (automated audio visualizations etc)
- Standardization regards technical standards only not content/ schema
- Blockchain can serve create certifiable record of activity that specifically leads to competencies and credentials
- activity data can be success data show either that you’ve done something but also that you’ve succeeded in doing something
Privacy and Data Governance
- anyone who types a URL into their browser should be aware on what is happening about data governance/ how we relate to any web based technology
- any technology that’s being used in learning space needs trade-offs about privacy, one should be aware
Data to project trends
xAPI profile that maps against certain business processes / alignment between their business processes and learning processes/ mission control visualizations/
Distribution of LRSs
That is policy question than technology question/xAPI is basically inter operable. Identity management is a bigger issue, however.
Who owns LRS data?
- easy: xAPI statement requires a unique identifier for the person who is doing sth/ people us e-mail addresses to do that
- difficult: when the e-mail is a work e-mail.
Experience with a digital footprint is a form of media.
Just finished watching the conversation between Steven Downes and George Siemens in the framework of the E-Learning 3.0 course. Here is some of the key points I wrote down:
- In the last five years we are kind of being in the wilderness/ now, there is an emergence of a more shared consistent narrative about AI and human intelligence and how these two intersect/ how we learn is structurally different way that predicted
- The human equation in learning is critical to understanding/ Ai is influenced by human intelligence, one determines what the other does/ so the question is: what is uniquely human? Siemens advocated for an idea of beingness, who we are as people, kindness, compassion, emotion, maybe, he says, that’s our final domain of control. Machine learning model can be more accurate and effective that human intelligence, humans may slip through, computers always learn more/ So, if cognition isn’t our domain there are still areas where we are can prevail. Downes rejected the idea of being as fuzzy and suggested purpose and definition of goodness instead as more unique human qualities. However, he said, that if we can come up with ethics, so can computers and that perhaps we are destined to be the voice in the computer’s head.
- What is learning? A persistent change in behavior or behavioral potential due to having undergone some type of experience, reflection or interaction with the environment/ the first part of learning is the capacity to choose what is important to you/ choosing-deciding that’s the skill in support we should be providing to students developmental attributes/
- The things that are not being measured but end up to be more consequential
- We can not not learn unless there is sth structurally wrong with us
- So, why are we teaching in a way that is counter intuitive and not personally satisfying to students? Learning can be a bit of a struggle sometimes unless you are doing something that you absolutely love/ if we can have access to systems that can learn and out-learn us what should we be teaching? What’s the point of a formal system of learning when a student has an enormous disadvantage in relation to any type of technology agent? Maybe we should turn to the library of Alexandria, the lyceum or the academia for a model of more random exploration.
- Siemens prediction for the next 50 years (short term) is that we are going to be working with technology, build knowledge and physically work in some in of relationship with technology. He quoted Andy Clark’s phrase about the mind being extended in the environment so our knowledge is not solely in our heads/ the ideas of connectivism seem all the more relevant as we proceed, he said.
- Underlying layers of bitcoin and related technology reveal imply a significant change to the web itself (Downes)
- The trustworthiness of the system is significant/ the places to hide are becoming minimum/ fragmenting the conversation has the same effect as denying a fact because people can’t get on the same page. Siemens used the word obfuscation: the conversation is not held long enough to have a shared opinion on that/ the strategies of dealing with is is fragmenting the main participants so that won’t be a coherent narrative
- The joker problem: sometimes you just want to see the city burnt (Downes)
- We are no longer engaging with information but with identities/ we only care about the info that validates our identity, the authenticity is secondary
- Will to power (narcissistic) or will to control: I want to have control of what I do/ we often don’t see the long term impact-
- What information abundance consumes is attention/ in the past we had more attention that information/ getting better for using our attention/ raising the IQ of individuals is important especially in an analytics world drives everything what happens
You can watch the discussion here