Integral Theory

INTEGRAL 01

Integral Theory

  • is a post-metaphysical approach to knowledge synthesis that is based on the AQAL (all-quadrant, all-level) framework, its five elements (quadrants, levels, lines, states, and types), and Integral Methodological Pluralism
  • provides a comprehensive means of integrating the four dimension-perspectives of objectivity, interobjectivity, subjectivity, and intersubjectivity with the major methodological families in such a way that avoids postulating pre-existing ontological structures/ IT assigns no ontological or epistemological priority to any of these elements because they co-arise and “tetra-mesh” simultaneously
  • is interested in the participatory relationship through which multiple ways of knowing the myriad dimensions of reality occurs through various methods of inquiry
  • is designed to offer an effective means to combine the best of both conventional and alternative approaches in a particular form of Integral Education/ it claims that if an approach to education excludes any of the following components, it falls short of a truly integral approach.
  • provides an effective template to design pedagogy, classroom activities, evaluations, courses and curriculum

ALL QUADRANTS: basic perspectives an individual can take on reality/ ALL LEVELS: occurrence of complexity within each dimension/ ALL LINES: the various distinct capacities that develop through each of these levels of complexity/ ALL STATES: temporary occurrence of any aspect of reality within the four quadrants/ ALL TYPES: refers to the variety of styles that aspects of reality assume in various domains.

 

References + Image

Esbjörn-Hargens, S., 2007. Integral Teacher, Integral Students, Integral Classroom: Applying Integral Theory to Education. In AQAL: Journal of Integral Theory and Practice Vol 2, No. 2., pp. 72-103.

Locke v Rousseau: two competing views in education

John_Locke_and_Jean-Jacques_Rousseau

Lock (traditional, fundamentalist – Back to Basic): children’s minds are tabula rasa/ a child’s growth is determined by external causes from the environment of society / it was important to instruct children in order to instill the values of democracy/ children needed to be taught [Essay concerning Human Understanding, 1690]

Rousseau (alternative, humanist – Whole Child): children as the expression of innate purity/ children needed supportive contexts for their talents and other various capacities to flourish/ children as noble savages whose growth was determined by internal causes of development/ children needed to be protected from the pressures of society to discover themselves [The Social Contract; Emile, 1762]

 

References

Esbjörn-Hargens, S., 2007. Integral Teacher, Integral Students, Integral Classroom: Applying Integral Theory to Education. In AQAL: Journal of Integral Theory and Practice Vol 2, No. 2., pp. 72-103.

Image available here

Design with a capital D

DESIGN

RCA Report on the nature of design with a capital D

  • central concern is “the conception and realization of new things”
  • it encompasses the appreciation of “material culture” and the application of “the arts of planning, inventing, making and doing.”
  • at its core is the ‘language’ of ‘modelling’; it is possible to develop students’ aptitudes in this ‘language’, equivalent to aptitudes in the ‘language’ of the sciences – numeracy – and the ‘language’ of humanities – literacy
  • design has its own distinct ‘things to know, ways of knowing them, and ways of finding out about them’

Education in any of these ‘cultures’ entails the following three aspects:

  • the transmission of knowledge about a phenomenon of study
  • a training in the appropriate methods of enquiry
  • an initiation into the belief systems and values of the ‘culture’

If we contrast the sciences, the humanities, and design under each aspect, we may become clearer of what we mean by design, and what is particular to it.
the phenomenon of study in each culture is:

  • in the sciences: the natural world
  • in the humanities: human experience
  • in design: the man-made world

the appropriate methods in each culture are:

  • in the sciences: controlled experiment, classification, analysis
  • in the humanities: analogy, metaphor, criticism, evaluation
  • in design: modelling, pattern-formation, synthesis

the values of each culture are:

  • in the sciences: objectivity, rationality, neutrality, and a concern for ‘truth’
  • in the humanities: subjectivity, imagination, commitment, and a concern for ‘justice’
  • in design: practicality, ingenuity, empathy, and a concern for ‘appropriateness’

Perhaps it would be better to regard the ‘third culture’ as technology, rather than design (…) Technology involves a synthesis of knowledge and skills from both the sciences and the humanities, in the pursuit of practical tasks.

 

References

Cross, N., 1982. Designerly ways of knowling. In Design Studies, Vol. 3, no. 4 pp. 221-227

Image available here

The vacant plot/ The third area in education

A-Third-Pillar-of-Knowledge_chart

What Science and the Humanities leave out.
Science: concerned with the attainment of understanding based upon observation, measurement, the formulation of theory and the testing of theory by further observation or experiment/The scientist is concerned with theory/ generalized knowledge, may study any phenomenon she chooses  and the kind of understanding she may achieve will be limited by the observations she can make.

Humanities: it is distinct from science (unanimous) it is concerned with human values, and the expression of the spirit of man. They exclude the making and doing aspects of the fine, performing and useful arts/ Scholars in Humanities: they study the history and philosophy of science, but do not contribute to its content.

The third area in education could legitimately claim technology and the fine, performing and useful arts, although not their scientific knowledge base (if any) of their history, philosophy and criticism (if any), without trending on anyone else’s grass/ the third area is the collected body of practical knowledge based upon sensibility, invention, validation and implementation/ In Design, the repository of knowledge is not only the material culture and the contents of the museums but also the executive skills of the doer and maker.”

By the end of Archer’s three decades at the Royal College of Art (RCA), London, the discipline that he devised, design research, had become a major force in both theory and practice (…) His Systematic Method For Designers involved six basic stages: programming, data collection, analysis, synthesis, development and communication (…) i n the mid-1960s, the idea that design should be based on a shared set of procedures and concepts was radically new and very controversial. Archer detected widespread confusions about what design was, and what its processes entailed: as he put it later, in December 1976, with his usual directness: “I believe that the very reason why our society is in a state of economic and cultural stress is because it has for too long regarded the kinds of knowledge and ways of knowing of the ‘doing and making’ culture as being of rather marginal concern. You cannot ignore the nurturing of the material culture and still expect to enjoy its fruits. That is why I invented design research as a back-up to design practice.”

 

References

Archer, B., 1979. Design as a discipline. In Design Studies, Vol. 1, no. 1, July 1979

L. Bruce Archer ‘Guardian’ obituary

L. Bruce Archer ‘The Independent’ obituary, written by my dear friend Sebastian McMillan. Sebastian, a student of Archer is also curator of the Wikipedia page baring his name ‘L. Bruce Archer’, available here

Image available here

The three Rs

'If spelling is so important, why does only one of the 3Rs begin with an 'R'?'

Reading-wRiting-aRithmetic (‘rithmetic)

3Rs Wikipedia: It appeared in print as a space-filler in “The Lady’s Magazine” for 1818, although it is widely quoted as arising from a phrase coined in a speech given by Sir William Curtis, Member of Parliament, in about 1795. Since its original creation, many others have used the term to describe other trifecta.

(…) It is widely held that when all layers of refinement and complexity are stripped away, the heart of education is the transmission of the essential skills of the 3Rs (…) The expression refers to only two ideas: language and number (…) it is rather an alarming thought that most of the those who make the most far-reaching decisions on matters affecting the material culture (…) had an education in which contact with the most relevant disciplines ceased at the age of thirteen (!)

 

References

Archer, B., 1979. Design as a discipline. In Design Studies, Vol. 1, no. 1, July 1979

Image available here

Linkages between research and teaching

Classification of disciplines

  • BIGLAN: hard pure – soft pure – hard applied – soft applied
  • KOLB: abstract reflective – concrete reflective – abstract active – concrete active

Linkages between research and teaching:

  • In terms of CONTENT: the linkages are more difficult to enact in hard disciplines because of the more hierarchical and cumulative construction of knowledge
  • In terms of SOCIAL PROCESS: it is the other way around as students from hard disciplines often work with staff as part of their research
  • In terms of PROFESSIONAL ASSOCIATIONS: these bodies may influence the attitudes of staff and students towards research-teaching links, particularly where they accredit entry into the profession by controlling the curriculum

 

References

Healey, M., 2005. Linking research and teaching: exploring disciplinary spaces and the role of inquiry-based learning. In Barnett, R (ed) (2005) Reshaping the University: New Relationships between Research, Scholarship and Teaching. McGraw Hill / Open University Press, pp.67-78

Research in teaching

RESEARCH-TEACHING

  • university research often detracts from the quality of teaching (Pocklington and Tupper 2002: 7)
  • courses taught by those at the cutting edge of research will necessarily be of higher quality than those taught by those merely using the research results of others – whatever the apparent quality of their style of delivery (Lee 2004: 9)
  • there is clear evidence from a range of studies in different types of institutions of students valuing learning in a research-based environment (Jenkins 2004: 29)
  • students are likely to gain most benefit from research, in terms of depth of learning and understanding, when they are also involved in research (Healey and Roberts 2004)

A range of terms is used in the literature, often interchangeably, to describe the research-teaching nexus. Griffiths (2004) suggests that a distinction might be made between teaching which is predominantly:

  • Research-led: where students learn about research findings, the curriculum content is dominated by staff research interests, and information transmission is the main teaching mode;
  • Research-oriented: where students learn about research processes, the curriculum emphasizes as much the processes by which knowledge is produced as learning knowledge that has been achieved, and staff try to engender a research ethos through their teaching;
  • Research-based: where students learn as researchers, the curriculum is largely designed around inquiry-based activities, and the division of roles between teacher and student is minimized
  • Research-tutored: top left quadrant, which, although not recognized by Griffiths (2004), is student-focused and emphasizes research content (see image above)

research is context specific and multidisciplinary rather than pure and discipline based; it has social relevance rather than being hypothesis led; it uses fuzzy, rather than empirically based data; it is problem solving rather than deductive. In what might be termed the commodification of knowledge, how knowledge is managed, synthesized and adapted become as important as knowledge itself (Jenkins and Zetter, 2003: 11)

 

References

Healey, M., 2005. Linking research and teaching: exploring disciplinary spaces and the role of inquiry-based learning. In Barnett, R (ed) (2005) Reshaping the University: New Relationships between Research, Scholarship and Teaching. McGraw Hill / Open University Press, pp.67-78

Image available here

From Mode 2 to Mode 3 Knowledge

COMPLEXITY 3

On one hand there is the educational task of preparing students for a complex world. On the other, there is the educational task of coming to a position where one can prosper in a situation of multiple interpretations where incomplete judgements or decisions must be made either because of a. the press of time, b. insufficient evidence, c. outcomes are unpredictable/ all above forms are not mutually exclusive and there is no security available

Mode 2 Knowledge responds to task no 1, thus, problem-solving in situ/creative knowing in situ. In the end one has to rely on one’s capacity for seeing a way forward in a particular setting. This form of knowledge is necessarily creative because of its particularity. However, the character of the complex world must always elude our attempts to understand it and the central idea of Mode 2 Knowledge that with sufficient creativity and imagination a solution can be designed is problematic.

Mode 3 Knowledge beckons that knowing the world is a matter of producing epistemological gaps. Knowing produces further uncertainty. In supercomplexity, the world is not just unknowable but also indescribable. So, the educational task is not an epistemological task but an ontological one; it is the task of enabling individuals to prosper amid supercomplexity.

 

References

Barnett, R., 2004. Learning for an unknown future. In Higher Education Research and Development, Vol. 23, No. 3, August 2004.

Image available here

 

 

Use of VLE for threshold concepts

DS AS LIMINAL SPACE

First Year students/ 30 students – one tutor/ Phase One

collage workshop – evaluation of learning through anonymous post-it notes:

  • what did you grasp today? what’s still a bit confusing? (if a student didn’t understand something, however small and seemingly inconsequential, it would be
    heard (anonymously) and acted on.)
  • whose work did you find successful? ( to remind students that whilst their drawings grow from personal values and engagement, they succumb to the viewers’ interpretations)

collage workshop – online summary from the session was prepared

  • The online space of the VLE with content structured in the form of a tutorial session served to allow students to repeatedly go over moments of uncertainty or trouble from the workshop.

The demands of project based learning are rigorous: the need to generate elements of work continuously (or fear falling behind) puts pressure on students to sidestep conceptually difficult elements by creating works that seem correct yet do not demonstrate a grasp of the underlying principles

First Year students/ 30 students – one tutor/ Phase Two

learning orthographic projection – evaluation of mistakes & omissions

  • double approach: hand design and CAD design of the same process_images looked right but were not right in both design environments

learning orthographic projection – online tools for tutoring

  • fifteen minute podcast and sample sketchbook as online handout

Removing activities from the scheduled studio sessions offers a strategy for responding to a stuffed curriculum and frees up time to focus on elements of transformative learning

 

References

Williams, J., 2014. The design studio as liminal space. In Charrette 1(1) Summer 2014.

Image available here 

The “Connected Curriculum”

CONNECTED CURRICULUM

UCL’s twenty-year vision and a wholesale commitment to changing programs of study/ its goal is to enable students to participate in research and inquiry throughout their education/ allows students to make connections both vertically across a program’s year groups and horizontally across disciplinary divides, even beyond the university setting/ research-based education aspires to widen the notion of what constitutes legitimate research and who has the authority to contribute to it.

The University is changing: new ways of knowing in order to thrive in a unknown future/ in the age of supercomplexity a new epistemology for the university awaits, one that is open, bold, engaging, accessible, and conscious of its own insecurity (Barnett)

SIX DIMENSIONS OF CONNECTIVITY

  • students are encouraged to connect with staff and learn about ongoing research
  • connected sequence of research activities throughout students’ programs (scaffolding)
  • research is inherently social/ students are encouraged to connect their learning across the subjects they are taking and with the wider world
  • students are encouraged to connect academic learning with workplace learning and develop a full range of professional attributes and skills
  • assessments: critical questions concerning their forms or types of skills they address
  • interpersonal connections between people from different disciplines, cultures and backgrounds

 

References

Carnell, B., 2017. Towards a connected curriculum in architectural education: research-based education in practice. In Charrette 4(1) Spring 2017, pp. 14-26

Image available here

 

Peer to peer learning

peer-to-peer-learning-portal-online-learning-uplatz_3

Peer Learning Definition: Students learning from and with each other in both formal and informal ways with emphasis on the learning process and the emotional support that learners offer each other, as much as the task itself.

10 models: the traditional proctor model (seniors tutor juniors), partnerships between students of the same year, discussion seminars, private study groups, parrainage, counselling, peer-assessment schemes, collaborative project or lab work, projects in different sized groups, workplace mentoring and community activities.

Outcomes

  • working with others: sharing, acknowledging contributions, working together to develop collaborative skills.
  • critical inquiry and reflection: challenges to existing ways of thinking, opportunities for formulating questions, deep engagement
  • communication and articulation of knowledge, understanding and skills: testing and rehearsing the ideas of others, expressing concepts
  • managing learning and how to learn: self-management skills, not prompt by deadlines but by the exigencies of cooperating, identifying learning needs, collective responsibility
  • self and peer assessment: giving and receiving feedback, identifying criteria

 

References

Peer Learning in Higher Education: Learning from & with Each Other, (eds) David Boud, Ruth Cohen & Jane Sampson, introduction by David Boud, 2001, London: Kogan Page

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Videotyping

KHAN ACADEMY

 

Khan Academy: type of a screencast that records the pen-tip of the presenter on a digital drawing board.

 

  1. classroom lecture with instructor on the blackboard
  2. talking head of instructor at desk
  3. digital drawing board (Khan-style)
  4. slide presentation
  5. studio without audience
  6. computer coding session

Two types of screen movement: static or dynamic/ Two types of narrative: explicit and implicit

Proposed taxonomy of videos based on human embodiment and instructional media from the digital to the physical. The proposed taxonomy: 1) holds the predictive attribute, 2) provides a fine-grained spectrum of typologies, and 3) is complemented with a visual representation of the existing and potential video production styles.(Chorianopoulos, 2018).

 

References

Guo, P. J., Kim, J., & Rubin, R. (2014, March). How video production affects student engagement: An empirical study of mooc videos. In Proceedings of the First ACM Conference on Learning@ Scale Conference (pp. 41-50). ACM.

Sugar, W., Brown, A., & Luterbach, K. (2010). Examining the anatomy of a screencast: Uncovering common elements and instructional strategies. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 11(3).

Chorianopoulos, K., 2018. A Taxonomy of Asynchronous Instructional Video Styles. In International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning  (IRRODL)Volume 19, Number 1

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