The three presences in the communities of inquiry

communities of inquiry

Cognitive presence: operationalized through the Practical Inquiry model, based on Dewey’s notion of reflective thought, it is a developmental model with four phases; event, exploration, integration and resolution.

Social presence: a multi-dimensional perspective where participants a. identify with the community, b. communicate purposefully and c. develop interpersonal relationships in a clear prograssive nature

Teaching presence: as a significant determinant of student sattisfaction, perceived learning and sense of community but with a lack of consensus as to its morphology


Garrison, Randy D., Anderson T., Archr, W., 2009, The first decade of the community of inquiry framework: A retrospective, The Internet and Higher Education 13 (2010) 5-9

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